Smart growth is characterized by five main activities: control of outward movement; inner-area revitalization and growth in more central places; design innovations; land and natu-ral resource preservation; and transportation reorientation. Compared with traditional sprawl development, smart growth shows significant public- and private-sector cost advan-tages over a 25-year period. Nevertheless, its implementation remains a main challenge because suburbs and cities alike lack both an agenda and strategies to invoke smart growth. Various responses to foster smart growth are proposed to support and complement current efforts.
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